What is the difference between these three physical phenomena: antimatter, dark matter and dark energy?
Antimatter is the opposite of ordinary matter in electrical charge. It annihilates perfectly with its opposite pair, ideally converting 100% of matter into energy.
The electron which is matter, has charge -1. Its antimatter would be the +1 charge positron sharing the same mass and characteristics.
Anti-hydrogen atoms have been created and maintained for up to 11 minutes, to avoid annihilation with normal matter, electromagnetic traps are used, it is too expensive to produce antimatter.
Where did all the antimatter go?
Baryogenesis was the process in which ordinary (baryonic) matter triumphed over antimatter.
Now, dark matter is all that matter that is ” missing” in the universe and we cannot explain its origin.
The missing matter problem was first noticed when the expected rotation of galaxies did not match the measurement.
This is due to the homogeneity in the angular rotations of the galaxies, where the observed mass was unable to corroborate the results, revealing that there is more matter than is normally observed.
It is also responsible for gravitational effects that we cannot explain with visible matter.
Dark matter makes up about 23% of the matter in the universe that is not baryonic (ordinary) matter, dark energy, or neutrinos.
Visible or baryonic matter only constitutes approximately 4% of the total of the universe, such as stars, dust pillars, neutron stars, etc…
It is called dark because it does not interact with electromagnetic waves, therefore we cannot detect or observe it.
the dark energy
Dark energy is a form of quintessence which causes the expansion of the universe, in an accelerated way.
It is assumed that after the bin bang the universe as it cools should stop its expansion, however the expansion accelerates, it is hypothesized that this energy is what causes it, dark energy constitutes approximately 70% of the energy of the universe.
Dark energy is a negative pressure, that is, it repels, producing the opposite effect of gravity or matter itself, which “binds” astronomical objects.
Depending on the topology of the universe, it is theorized that the universe could suffer a cold death or big rip, where all atoms are wiped out by dark energy and no baryonic structure survives.